SUMATRA - diverse





The Red-Shouldered Yokohama

(rotgesattelte Jokohama)

Red-Shouldered Yokohama Page One/ Page Two/ Bantam Red-Shouldered Yokohama / White Yokohama / Blue Red-Shouldered Yokohama/ Breeding

I am also working with the whites here at Casa Rocca and will publish some images by the summer of 2001 here on these pages. I have listed the whites and blacks under a different category because they are very rare in the world of Phoenix breeders. The whites originated from different sources and are of completely different genotypes. Some were recessive whites out of silver duckwing or golden duckwing breeding, others are dominant white from Leghorn crosses. My line is of Erhardt Schubert lines and have the dominant white factor. These are not difficult to work with but, having white feathers, special care must be taken to keep their tails from soiling too much. I would advise keeping them in spacious stalls during wet weather. In their stalls a deep layer of chopped hay or woodshavings is an excellent way to keep the feathers in top condition. Also, as with all the longtail breeds, too many birds in a small space will always be detrimental to their dragging feathers as they are either picked out by bored hens, anxious other roosters or are trampled and broken.

The birds illustrated above are from the period not long after Hugo duRoi began to work with what he had called the "Phoenix of Fables". Here we can see clearly the pea or cushion walnut comb, the typical red and cream-white colour combination now taken for granted in most countries in the world as the Kennzeichen for the Yokohama.

(England being the exception, please refer to the PHOENIX-ONAGADORI DEBATE and to the British Yokohama pages of this website.) Here we can see that these birds are already of a different physiological type than the Onagadori-descendants refered to as Phoenix. These birds may very well have been closer to the MINOHIKI. This colouration has been refered to as Pile, but I have not seen any other breed of bird, including many so-called Pile patterns, which possessed the particular combination found here. In using Yokohamas in outcrosses, I discovered, however that the white present here is indeed a dominant white, as in true Piles. When crossing Sumatra and Yokohama, which I have seen done in the UK and in America, the results were blue-reds, showing the influence that dominant white has over black but not over red. Click here for examples.

The bird at right is a bantam rooster I had when we lived in Switzerland on "The Farm" (Der Hof) near the lower end of the lake of Zurich. From imported East German breeding stock, this little rooster had many refined points that the birds from Western European breeding lacked: full, long tail feathers, small walnut combs, slender bodies and clearly exposed, compact underbellies. The spangled chest pigmentation is quite a feat to achieve and this award-winning rooster had near-perfect oxblood shoulders and terra cotta red chest with clearly defined "droplets" of ivory for spangles. My breeding stock went to an award-winning breeder, Hansjörg Haltiner of Aarau, Switzerland in 1992.


The first two shots show a famous, highly awarded bird and a cross section, both of Knut Roeder's lines, of large Red Shouldered Yokohamas. Mr Roeder's lines were created with one rooster from a Dutch Malayan-like Yokohamas crossed with German long-legged lines and a very long-feathered, darkly pigmented Belgian line. The results were one of Germany's most famous line of Yokohamas, a line which has now been exported to Japan where any breed with this particular type of colouring died out in the World War periods. It is believed that our modern Yokohamas are descendants of the Japanese Minohiki. But this particular colour pattern does not exist in the modern Minohiki breed.

THE YOKOHAMA - An Oriental Idea made Occidental (in pattern)


The Red-Shouldered Yokohama of Europe, the UK and America are direct and indirect descendants of the Minohiki of Japan. The red-breasted, creamy-white hackled, yellow-legged bird was already recognisable as a type of Minohiki (see link above) in pre-World War I Japan, at which time the first imports had begun to arrive in Europe.


The first president of the German National Poultry Association, Mr Hugo duRoi set himself at the daunting task of re-invigorating the very weak, diverse long-tailed birds that had arrived in Europe in th 1800's. Some went direction Phoenix (white ear lobes and single combs and willow to slate legs), some went in the direction Yokohama (gamefowl type, yellow-legged, no-wattles, cushion-walnut comb). Due the the extensive research of Brian Reeder on the Red-Shoulder pattern, we now know that the Kennzeichen pearl-drop spangled breast pattern was an addition made in Europe with the help of a type of Hamburg, as this pattern gene is nonexistent in the Orient. See the link above for further details about the genetic makeup of this poultry creation!


A fascinating bird and the task only of the more dedicated in keeping the pattern and characteristics distinctive! Best results are always from balancing weaknesses with strengths, lights with darks, etc. and not by crossing two perfectly-marked and pigmented birds. The results of this is usually a high percentage of over-marked birds.

This image above is of a Red Shoulder Yokohama from the UK. It shows the slight influence of the nm (non-moulting gene) in the one to two long, straggly feathers. The phenotype (that which is visibly seen) is practically identical to the mainland European standard. The image below is a Red Shoulder from the breeding programmes of Bruce and Caleb Jenkins, USA which has its provenance in an import made to America by Mr Horst Schmudde in the 1970s.


This image (right) is to help those of you in America working with this very beautiful breed, in the selection process. Outcrosses have been necessary to restore health in this breed, but, as is seen in a lot that Bruce and Caleb have been working with, the clear aspects of the breed have sometimes been temporarily lost. There are willow-legged and even slate-legged birds being traded and sold as pure Yokohama in America. These aspects are foreign to this breed, as well as anything other than the cushion comb. Good luck to all of you working on these aspects!





Bruce Jenkins and his son, Caleb, are perhaps America's most prolific Red-Shouldered Yokohama breeders from what I can tell. From what genetic material has been available to them, Bruce began to work earnestly to reestablish good form, feathering and markings a few years ago. A paramount task! Looking over the images below, one can see that what he found in America had all come from one single import by Mr Schmudde in the 1970s and that the line had begun to deteriorate genetically. A lot of the markings had disappeared and especially the pigmentation and there is a lot of mixed leg colours, showing outcrosses to mostly Phoenix, which is a very good cross to help re-vitalise the breed! In looking down the line of hens on the right in this gallery, one can see that he is starting to get deep ox-blood shoulders again and some larger, more clearly defined spangling. The tails of the roosters range approximately from two and a half to three feet, which is what the European breeders also prefer in terms of length


Click on the smaller photos below to see them enlarged.





Red-Shouldered Yokohama Page One/ Page Two/ Bantam Red-Shouldered Yokohama / White Yokohama / Blue Red-Shouldered Yokohama/ Breeding


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